API gravity - Developed by the American Petroleum Institute, this term describes the relative density of a liquid petroleum, compared to water.
Appraisal well - Also known as delineation wells, appraisal wells are drilled by developers to define the geology of the discovery further after a wildcat well has already identified the presence of hydrocarbons.
Bit - This piece of equipment assists in abrading, shearing, or splitting rock.
Christmas tree - The assemblage of valves, chokes, and other fittings that control flow and access to an oil well. The Christmas tree is part of, but distinct from, the wellhead, which is used without its crowning “tree” during drilling.
Directional drilling - The act of drilling at an angle off the standard vertical by shifting the approach of the drill bit. Directional drilling can give operators the ability to access hydrocarbons in areas where the land’s surface inhibits drilling.
Pressure test - To help determine the properties of a drilling reservoir and its downhole, operators may conduct a pressure test of the well. This involves starting flow, then applying pressure from a gas or fluid, and measuring the effect on the equipment.